04 Actions and Training of Personnel

All Oiva evaluation guidelines for approved food establishments.

4.1 Working Hygiene of Personnel

Guide/version: 2124/04.02.00.01/2021/4, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • The use of protective gloves is evaluated in point 4.3 Working Clothes and Protective Clothing of Personnel.
  • The temperature monitoring of the knife disinfection unit is evaluated in point 6.7.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Own-check is adequately extensive at the establishment in relation to the scope of operations to ensure hygienic work practices.
  • Work practices, such as hand hygiene, as well as hygienic working methods, such as the correct use of the two-knife system.
  • Hygienic use of and disinfection instructions for working utensils, and utensils are only used for their intended use.
  • Compliance with clean area division and defined routes.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plans are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • The descriptions of handling raw materials and handling foodstuffs hygienically are fine.
  • Operational guidelines regarding hand hygiene are adequate and cover all operations.
  • Good working hygiene is complied with in operation; for example, working utensils, such as knives, vessels, ladles and other utensils that come into contact with foods and raw materials of foods are replaced, cleaned and disinfected on a regular basis.
  • The personnel look after hand hygiene, also between work stages.
  • The clean area division and the rules issued regarding the routes used by personnel, raw materials and materials are complied with.
  • Rules issued regarding smoking are complied with.
  • Compliance with guidelines related to working hygiene is monitored.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

The grade can be Good e.g. in cases where:

  • The descriptions of the hygienic handling of the raw materials and foodstuffs are a little incomplete.
  • Operational guidelines regarding working hygiene do not cover all operations. Some minor shortcomings are found, but they do not impair food safety, however.
  • Guidelines do not cover all aspects of hygienic use of working utensils, but good practices are complied with. For example, working utensils, such as knives, vessels, ladles and other utensils that come into contact with foods and raw materials of foods are replaced, cleaned and disinfected on a regular basis.
  • The personnel observe hand washing procedures, also between work stages.
  • The clean area division and the rules issued regarding the routes used by personnel, raw materials and materials are complied with as far as the clean area is concerned.
  • A plan has been prepared for the monitoring of compliance with guidelines related to working hygiene, but the plan is not complied with. However, there do not appear to be any shortcomings in personal hygiene or work practices.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

The grade can be To be corrected e.g. in cases where:

  • The descriptions of the hygienic handling of the most important raw materials and foodstuffs. Some shortcomings are found.
  • Operational guidelines regarding working hygiene do not cover all operations. Shortcomings are found that may affect food safety.
  • Guidelines have not been provided for hygienic use of working utensils, but some good practices are complied with. For example, there are clear shortcomings in the replacement, cleaning, and disinfection of working utensils, such as knives, vessels, ladles and other utensils that come into contact with foods and raw materials of foods.
  • The personnel observes hand washing procedures inconsistently.
  • Compliance with the clean area division and the rules issued regarding the routes used by personnel, raw materials and materials is poor.
  • A plan has been prepared for the monitoring of compliance with guidelines related to working hygiene, but the plan is not complied with. Shortcomings are found in personal hygiene or working practices.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The grade can be Poor e.g. in cases where:

  • The descriptions of the hygienic handling of raw materials and foodstuffs has not been prepared for all the necessary working stages.
  • There are no operational guidelines regarding working hygiene. The shortcomings affect food safety.
  • Guidelines have not been provided for hygienic use of working utensils, and good practices appear to be complied with hardly at all. For example, there are several serious shortcomings in the replacement, cleaning, and disinfection of working utensils, such as knives, vessels, ladles and other utensils that come into contact with foods and raw materials of foods.
  • The personnel observes hand washing procedures inconsistently.
  • There is no clean area division in place and no rules have been issued regarding the routes used by personnel, raw materials and materials.
  • There is no plan in place for the monitoring of compliance with guidelines related to working hygiene and no monitoring is implemented.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on Food Law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs; Articles 3 and 4, Annex II, Chapter IX
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on hygiene rules for food of animal origin
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021; 6 §, 22 §
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 4:

  • Guideline number 2124/04.02.00.01/2021/4 en replaces Guideline number 10275/3 en
  • The control of own-check activities has been clarified
  • Smoking of employees in the indoor areas of the food premises: has been deleted
  • Finnish Food Act: number has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318: has been added
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011; has been deleted.

4.3 Working Clothes and Protective Clothing of Personnel

Guide/version: 2125/04.02.00.01/2021/4, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • With the new legislation, the operator is responsible for and will draw up its own instructions for prohibiting or protecting different piercings and jewellery or similar for workers who handle food or spend time in food processing areas.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Work and protective clothing worn by staff while they work (headwear, workwear and footwear, and possibly protective gloves)
  • Cleanliness of work and protective clothing.
  • Persons handling unpacked foods, such as the protection of skin infections and skin injuries.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plans are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Staff working in food processing areas have adequate work and protective clothing suitable for the work.

The work and protective clothing of the staff working in the food processing area is clean.

Persons handling unpacked foods do not have skin infections, skin injuries, etc., or are properly covered with protective clothing.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

Nearly the entire staff working in food processing areas have adequate work and protective clothing suitable for the work.

There were some minor comments on the cleanliness of the work and protective clothing worn by staff working in the food processing area.

Persons handling unpacked foods do not have skin infections, skin injuries, etc., or are properly covered with protective clothing.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

There are shortcomings in the work and protective clothing worn by staff working in food processing areas which weakens food safety.

Comments had to be given on the cleanliness of the work and protective clothing worn by staff working in food processing areas, which weakens food safety.

Persons handling unpacked foods have skin infections, skin injuries, etc., or these have not been covered with protective clothing.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

There are serious shortcomings in the work and protective clothing of staff working in food processing areas, as well as in the suitability of their clothing for work that endangers food safety.

There are serious shortcomings in the cleanliness of the work and protective clothing worn by staff working in food processing areas which poses a danger to food safety.

People who handle unpacked foods have, for example, visible wounds or skin injuries. Food safety has been compromised.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapter VIII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 4:

  • Guideline number 2125/04.02.00.01/2021/4 en replaces Guideline number 10276/3.
  • To be taken into consideration has been added
  • Things to check: The use of work and protective clothing has been updated
  • List of legislation has been updated
  • The guide has been aligned with the RFP-guide.

4.4 Monitoring of Employees' Health Status

Guide/version: 2126/04.02.00.01/2021/6, valid from 1.7.2021

This evaluation is not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the control report.

NOTE! Monitoring of employees’ health status is carried out by the Health and Welfare Institutes (THL) guideline for the prevention of salmonella infections https://thl.fi/fi/web/infektiotaudit/taudit-ja-mikrobit/bakteeritaudit/salmonella/toimenpideohje-salmonellatartuntojen-ehkaisemiseksi.

To be taken into consideration:

  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate how the operator establishes that the employees are fit to work in the food sector.

Matters to be controlled:

  • The health status of employees who handle foodstuffs.
  • Health status checks of employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

A health status check has been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

A health status check has been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

Health status checks have not been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating and/or there are some shortcomings in the performance of the checks.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease handle foodstuffs in the food premises, which jeopardises food safety.

A health status check has not been carried out on all the employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

The shortcomings related to the health status checks of the employees do not cause a direct risk to food safety. For this reason, the grade “Poor” is only given in case the grade “To be corrected” has been given repeatedly and the shortcomings have not been rectified within the set period of time.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapter VIII
  • Finnish Communicable Diseases Act 1227/2016; Section 56
  • Finnish Communicable Diseases Decree 146/2017
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • The Health and Welfare Institutes (THL) guideline for the prevention of salmonella infections.


Updates in version 6:

  • Guideline number 2126/04.02.00.01/2021/6 replaces Guideline number 10220/5.
  • Guideline has been changed to a common guideline for Registered food premises and Approved Food Establishments.
  • Records requirement related to the employees' health status checks: has been deleted.
  • Finnish Food Act: number has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, Section 17: has been deleted.
  • Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises 16025: has been deleted.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene at establishments 795/2014, Section 4: has been deleted.

4.5 Instruction, Guidance and Training of Personnel

Guide/version: 2127/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This point is evaluated at all establishments.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Instruction provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.
  • Person responsible for own-check activities and training of the responsible person.
  • Direction and training of employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.
  • Guidance and training provided to the personnel after any fundamental changes implemented in operations.
  • The adequacy of the instruction provided to the personnel, particularly as concerns personnel with high turnover as well as high-risk activities.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Instruction has been provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has been appointed and provided with adequate training in their duties.

Employees who handle foods have been provided with direction and training in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The food business operator shall ensure that persons follow the instructions given.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

There are some minor shortcomings in providing instruction to the personnel in own-check according to their duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has been appointed but has not been provided with adequate training in their duties.

There are some minor shortcomings in the direction and training of employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

There are minor deficiencies in the food business operator's supervision of compliance with the instructions given.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Instruction has not been adequately provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has not been appointed.

Direction and training have been provided to employees who handle foods only a little in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The operator does not control that the employees comply with the instructions provided.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The employees carry out duties of such a nature that wrong work practices jeopardise food safety.

A person responsible for own-check activities has not been appointed.

Direction and training have not been provided to employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The operator does not control that the employees comply with the instructions provided.

The employees carry out duties of such a nature that wrong work practices jeopardise food safety.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapters VIII and XII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 3:

  • Guideline number 2127/04.02.00.01/2021/3 en replaces Guideline number 10278/2.
  • Guideline has been changed to a common guideline for Registered food premises and Approved Food Establishments
  • To be taken into consideration has been added
  • The control of Instruction, Guidance and Training of Personnel has been clarified
  • List of legislation has been updated.

4.6 Verification of Hygiene Proficiency

Guide/version: 2128/04.02.00.01/2021/6, valid from 1.7.2021

Matters to be controlled:

  • The Hygiene Passports of personnel handling unpackaged perishable foodstuffs.
  • Own-check activities records related to the Hygiene Passports.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

It has been verified in the food establishment or food premises that every employee who handles unpackaged perishable foodstuffs has the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

The recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel required by the Food Act is in order.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

It has been verified in the food establishment or food premises that every employee who handles unpackaged perishable foodstuffs has the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

There are some minor shortcomings in the recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel required by the Food Act.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

It has not been verified in the food establishment or food premises that employees who handle unpackaged perishable foodstuffs have the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

There is no recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel as required by the Food Act.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The shortcomings related to the Hygiene Passports do not immediately endanger food safety. For this reason, the grade “Poor” is only given in case the grade “To be corrected” has been given repeatedly and the shortcomings have not been rectified within the set period of time.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapter XII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/3032, Section 19
  • Evira's Guide for risk-based control of food establishments and food premises 16044.


Updates in version 6:

  • Guideline number 2128/04.02.00.01/2021/6 replaces Guideline number 10222/5.
  • Finnish Food Act: number and section number has been changed.