05 Hygiene of Food Production

All Oiva evaluation guidelines for approved food establishments.

5.1 General Hygiene of Food Production

Guide/version: 2131/04.02.00.01/2021/2, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • Only matters not included in any specific/other evaluation point are evaluated in this point.
    For example:
    • Management of physical hazards and risks (e.g. broken glass, fragments of metal)
    • Washing operations of the food containers of other food establishments (not owned by the establishment itself)
    • Handling hygiene, washing operations and verification of cleanliness regarding the receptacles for by-products returned to the establishment
    • Other matters that are controlled, but are not included in any specific evaluation point.
  • The prevention of cross contamination at the various stages of production is evaluated in point 5.2.
  • The establishment is also responsible for compliance of any outsourced activities with legislation and requirements (for example, cleaning and vermin control which are often outsourced).

Matters to be controlled:

  • Management of physical hazards and risks.
  • Other matters that are controlled, but are not included in any specific evaluation point.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • Good hygiene is maintained, requirements are complied with and risks are under control as regards the controlled matter.
  • Own-check activities are adequate and suitable as regards the controlled matters.
  • The operator has sudden and random shortcomings under control through own-check activities.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are some minor shortcomings in the own-check activities as regards the controlled matter.
  • Corrective actions have not been recorded, but shortcomings have been rectified, however.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in the own-check activities as regards the controlled matter which impair food safety.
  • Corrective actions have not always been taken and the shortcoming impairs food safety.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in the own-check activities as regards the controlled matter which jeopardise food safety.
  • Corrective actions have not always been taken and the shortcoming jeopardises food safety.
  • The operator has failed to fulfil the orders issued with the grade To be corrected.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on food law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on hygiene rules for food of animal origin
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 2:

  • Guide no. 2131/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10279
  • List of legislation has been updated.

5.2 Separation of Activities Requiring Different Hygiene Levels

Guide/version: 2132/04.02.00.01/2021/2, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate the separation, either in time or through operational arrangements, of activities requiring different hygiene levels (e.g. manufacture of meat preparations and meat products) during production.
  • However, compliance with the conditions laid down in the approval decision is always evaluated in point 1.2.
  • Matters to be evaluated in this point also include the separation of areas, production stages and foodstuffs of different hygiene levels, as well as the prevention of cross-contamination. For example:
    • Areas of different hygiene levels
    • Separation of raw materials and finished products
    • Separation of uncooked and cooked finished products
    • Separation of unpackaged and packaged foodstuffs
    • Separation of meat specified to be heated (the actual heating procedure is evaluated in point 6.5)
    • Separation of pigs kept under controlled housing conditions from regular pigs to verify that Trichinella samples are taken from regular pigs
    • Prevention of cross-contamination at various production stages, for example in the slaughter line.
  • The approvals of activities are evaluated in point 1.2.
  • The separation of materials and products other than foodstuffs from foodstuffs is evaluated in point 5.6.
  • Separation of TSE risk material is evaluated in point 8.1.
  • Separation of by-products of categories 2 and 3 from foodstuffs is evaluated in point 5.7.

Matters to be controlled:

  • The separation of activities requiring different hygiene levels in practice, in time or through structural or operational arrangements.
  • The prevention of cross-contamination in practice between activities requiring different hygiene levels.
  • For example, the separation of meat specified to be heated.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities
  • A description in the own-check plan of how activities requiring different hygiene levels are separated in time or through operational arrangements, and compliance with the operational practices described in own-check.

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • Activities requiring different hygiene levels are separated in time or through structural or operational arrangements.
  • Cross-contamination between activities is prevented.
  • Own-check activities are adequate and suitable as regards separation.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • Activities, areas, etc. requiring different hygiene levels are mostly separated in time or through structural or operational arrangements.
  • The possibility of cross-contamination between activities is mostly prevented.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the separation of activities requiring different hygiene levels; for example, the transfer routes of products of different hygiene levels (raw materials/finished products/unpackaged/ packaged), but the shortcoming does not impair food safety.
  • Activities related to handling of cooked and uncooked foods in the same facilities or using the same equipment are separated from each other.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • Activities requiring different hygiene levels are not adequately separated in time or through structural or operational arrangements, and the shortcoming impairs food safety.
  • Activities requiring different hygiene levels are carried out using the same utensils, but the cleaning of equipment and utensils between the activities is inadequate, and the shortcoming impairs food safety.
  • Cooked and uncooked foods are handled in the same facilities at the same time, which exposes cooked products to a contamination risk.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • Activities requiring different hygiene levels are not separated in time or through structural or operational arrangements, and cross-contamination between activities is not prevented, and the shortcoming jeopardises safety.
  • Cooked foods are handled using the same equipment previously used to handle uncooked foods (separated in time) and the equipment has not been cleaned between these activities, which causes a direct risk of contamination to the foods.
  • The operator has failed to fulfil the orders issued with the grade to be corrected.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on food law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on hygiene rules for food of animal origin
  • Finnish Food Act 291/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 2:

  • Guide no. 2132/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10280
  • List of legislation has been updated.

5.3 Hygiene of Water Supply Points and Equipment Using Water

Guide/version: 2133/04.02.00.01/2021/4, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate water supply points and equipment using water in terms of their cleanliness and hygienic suitability in connection with various activities. The maintenance of water supply points and water equipment is evaluated specifically in point 2.3 "Maintenance of Fixtures, Equipment, Water Equipment and Utensils".
  • Water supply points and equipment using water refer to, for example, water taps, tap filters, water hoses, water basins and tanks, cleaning and disinfection equipment using water or steam, or e.g. a recycled water system. Disinfection equipment refers to, for example, equipment designed for the disinfection of working utensils used for hide removal, splitting of carcasses or cutting of meat.
  • The production of ice as well as chilling carried out using water and ice are evaluated in point 5.4 "Hygiene in Thawing, Chilling and Freezing".
  • Temperature monitoring of hot water used for disinfection is evaluated in point 6.8 “Temperature Management of Water used in Disinfection of Working Utensils”.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Cleanliness of water supply points
  • Cleanliness of equipment using water
  • Items provided at hand washing points
  • Hygienic suitability of water supply points and equipment using water, for example
    • functionality and cleaning effectiveness of touch free hand washing points
    • the manner in which the disinfection equipment is used and the length of the cleaning time to ensure that working utensils are clean
  • Volume and exchange of hot (minimum +82°C) water used for disinfection are adequate
  • Cleanliness, hygienic suitability and hygienic effectiveness of disinfection equipment using hot (minimum +82°C) water
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities.

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Operations comply with requirements as regards the matters that are controlled. For example:

  • Water supply points are clean.
  • Items provided at hand washing points and the functionality of the points are adequate.
  • Water taps, hoses and other equipment using water are hygienic.
  • Disinfection equipment is clean and hygienic, and the desired disinfection result is achieved with it.
  • Corrective actions have been adequate and appropriate. Deviations and corrective actions have been recorded.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are some minor shortcomings in the cleanliness of water supply points.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the items provided at hand washing points. However, food safety is not impaired.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the hygiene of water taps and hoses, but food safety is not impaired.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the records of deviations and corrective actions. Corrective actions have been adequate and appropriate.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in the cleanliness of water supply points which impair food safety.
  • There are several shortcomings in the items provided at hand washing points, or there are shortcomings in the hygiene of water taps and hoses which impair food safety.
  • There are shortcomings in the cleanliness of disinfection equipment or in the use of hot water which impair food safety.
  • Deviations have not been recorded although it becomes known that deviations have occurred or corrective actions taken because of deviations have been inappropriate or inadequate.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • There are serious shortcomings in the cleanliness of water supply points which jeopardise food safety.
  • At several hand washing points, the items provided are completely inadequate.
  • There are serious shortcomings in the hygiene of water taps and hoses.
  • There are serious shortcomings in the cleanliness of disinfection equipment or in the use of hot water which jeopardise food safety.
  • Corrective actions are not taken when deviations are detected and the shortcomings jeopardise the safety of foods.
  • The operator has failed to fulfil the orders issued with the grade To be corrected.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on Food Law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on Hygiene Rules for Food of Animal Origin
  • Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 on Official Controls on Products of Animal Origin
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on Food Hygiene 318/2021
  • Evira’s guideline 10591: Control of Water and Ice in Food Establishments (in Finnish and Swedish).


Updates in version 4:

  • Guideline 10281 is replaced by guideline 2133/04.02.00.01/2021.
  • The number of the Food Act has been updated.
  • Reference to the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on Food Hygiene 318/2021 has been added.
  • Reference to the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on Food Hygiene at Establishments 795/2014 has been deleted.

5.4 Hygiene in Thawing, Chilling and Quick-freezing

Guide/version: 2134/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate hygiene in thawing, chilling, quick-freezing, freezing and ice production, as well as the production and storage of ice.
  • Hygiene in thawing refers to e.g. the hygiene of the water used or produced in the thawing process.
  • Chilling refers to chilling by means of air, water, or ice. Hygiene in air chilling refers to e.g. the management of condensation water. Hygiene in water chilling refers to e.g. the hygiene of the water chilling systems and the chilling water used for the chilling of poultry meat and fishery products.
  • As concerns ice, the Guideline pertains to the hygiene of the ice water systems and ice at the establishments.
  • Hygiene in quick-freezing and freezing is evaluated both as concerns foodstuffs quick-frozen/frozen for own production and foodstuffs intended for marketing as quick-frozen/frozen products.
  • The compliance of water intended for human consumption with requirements is evaluated in point 1.4.
  • The compliance of clean water with requirements is evaluated in point 1.5.
  • Prevention of cross-contamination is evaluated in point 5.2.
  • Quick-freezing of products and temperature management in cold stores is evaluated in point 6.6.
  • The freezing treatment carried out due to the parasite risk in fish is evaluated in point 8.8.
  • Own-check testing of water and ice is evaluated in point 17.3.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Hygiene in the thawing, chilling, quick-freezing and freezing of foodstuffs.
  • Method of use of water used for thawing.
  • Hygienic draining of water produced in thawing.
  • Visible presence of condensation water.
  • Hygiene of water chilling equipment for poultry.
  • Production, storage and use of ice.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-Check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • There are some minor shortcomings in thawing hygiene based on the use of water, and food safety is not impaired.
  • Thawing based on the use of water is implemented in a hygienic manner and the water produced in thawing is drained in a hygienic manner.
  • Water chilling is implemented in a hygienic manner and in compliance with regulatory requirements.
  • No condensation water is produced in air chilling, or the production and draining of a small volume of condensation water is under control so that condensation water cannot run onto products or along floors, and the contamination of foodstuffs is prevented.
  • The production and storage of ice for use in the production of foodstuffs is organised in a hygienic and appropriate manner. The use of ice water is hygienic and appropriate.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are some minor shortcomings in thawing hygiene based on the use of water, and food safety is not impaired.
  • The draining of water produced in thawing is implemented in a manner that ensures food safety is not impaired.
  • Water chilling is mostly implemented in a hygienic manner and in compliance with regulatory requirements, and food safety is not impaired.
  • Some condensation water is produced in air chilling, but the production and draining of condensation water is under control so that condensation water cannot run onto products, and the contamination of foodstuffs is prevented.
  • The production and storage of ice for use in the production of foodstuffs is as a rule organised in a hygienic and appropriate manner and food safety is not impaired. There may be some minor shortcomings in the use of ice water which do not impair food safety.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in thawing based on the use of water which result in impaired food safety. There are shortcomings in the draining of water produced in thawing and food safety is impaired.
  • There are shortcomings in water chilling which result in impaired food safety. There are shortcomings in hygiene during the chilling of water chilling equipment for poultry which impair food safety.
  • Condensation water is produced in air chilling and the production and draining of the condensation water are not adequately under control. There is a possibility of condensation water running onto unpackaged foodstuffs causing a contamination risk to the foodstuffs and impairing food safety.
  • There are shortcomings in the production and/or storage of ice used for food production, and food safety is impaired. There are shortcomings in the use of ice water resulting in impaired food safety.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in thawing based on the use of water which result in food safety being jeopardised. There are shortcomings in the draining of water produced in thawing which result in food safety being jeopardised.
  • There are shortcomings in water chilling which result in food safety being jeopardised. There are shortcomings in the cleaning of water chilling equipment for poultry which result in food safety being jeopardised.
  • Condensation water is produced in air chilling and the production and draining of the condensation water are not adequately under control, or condensation water is drained in a manner that does not prevent the contamination of foodstuffs. Condensation water runs onto unpackaged foodstuffs, which jeopardises food safety. For example: condensation water accumulates onto the dirty surface structure and from there runs onto unpackaged foodstuffs, and contaminates them.
  • There are shortcomings in the production and/or storage of ice used for food production, and food safety is jeopardised. There are shortcomings in the use of ice water which result in food safety being jeopardised.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on food law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on hygiene rules for food of animal origin
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021
  • Evira's Guide 10591: Veden ja jään valvonta elintarvikehuoneistoissa (available only in Finnish and Swedish).


Updates in version 3:

  • Guide no. 2134/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10282
  • List of legislation and guidelines has been updated.

5.5 Hygiene in Wrapping and Packing

Guide/version: 2135/04.02.00.01/2021/2, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments where foodstuffs are wrapped and/or packed.
  • Good hygiene practices are complied with in the operations of the establishment to ensure the hygiene and compliance with requirements of wrapping and packaging materials as well as the wrapping and packing processes.
  • As a process, "wrapping" refers to the packing of a foodstuff in a wrapping or packaging that is in direct contact with the foodstuff, and as a material, to the actual wrapping or packaging material.
  • "Packing" refers to the packing of one of several wrapped foodstuffs in another container, and "outer packaging" to the actual container.
  • The suitability of materials for the wrapping and packing of foodstuffs is evaluated in point 14.1.
  • Hand hygiene related to packing is evaluated in point 4.1.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Cleanness and intactness of wrapping and packaging materials.
  • Handling and storage of wrapping and packaging materials. Wrapping and packaging materials are to be stored in a manner that prevents them from being contaminated, e.g. excessive amounts of packaging material brought into production facilities. Materials shall be stored in a facility reserved for them, under conditions that are suitable for the material concerned.
  • Hygiene in packing operations. Wrapping and packing shall be carried out in a manner that prevents the contamination of products. Matters to be taken into consideration include the hygiene of packing equipment and e.g. dust production from materials during the packing operation. Where cans and glass jars are concerned, the structural integrity and the cleanness of the materials shall be controlled, as well as the tightness of joints or lids.
  • Any wrapping and packaging materials reused for packing of foodstuffs shall be easy to clean, and where appropriate, easy to disinfect.
  • Suitability of the wrapping and packing facility for the operation, and hygiene level of the facility. During wrapping and packing, there may be no other traffic/operations in nearby facilities that disturb the wrapping/packing operation and jeopardise the hygiene level of the operation (increased risk of cross-contamination).
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • Wrapping and packaging materials are clean and intact.
  • Wrapping and packaging materials are handled and stored in a hygienic manner.
  • Wrapping and packing is carried out in a facility of a suitable hygiene level and in a manner based on the requirements related to the foodstuff concerned.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are some minor shortcomings in the cleanness or integrity of packaging materials; for example, the materials are slightly wet or dusty.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings in the cleanness or integrity of packaging materials that impair food safety.
  • There are shortcomings in the handling or storage of packaging material or in the packing of foodstuffs which impair the safety of food.
  • Wrapping and packing of foodstuffs is carried out in production facilities not intended for wrapping and packing of foodstuffs.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • No efforts at all or not adequate efforts are taken to ensure the cleanness and integrity of wrapping and packaging materials. For example, wrapping and packaging materials are visibly dirty or damaged.
  • Wrapping and packaging materials are stored under unhygienic conditions.
  • Wrapping and packing of foodstuffs is carried out in facilities not suitable for these operations and conditions are unhygienic to the extent that the safety of foodstuffs is jeopardised.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs.


Updates in version 2:

  • Guide no. 2135/04.02.00.01/2021replaces guideline no. 10283.

5.6 Hygiene in Storage and Warehousing of Foodstuffs

Guide/version: 2136/04.02.00.01/2021/2, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all establishments.
  • The purpose of the Guideline is to evaluate hygiene in storage and warehousing of foodstuffs as concerns raw materials and foodstuffs to be delivered to the market or used by the operator itself.
  • Temperature management in storage facilities is evaluated in point 6.2.
  • The cleanliness and order of surfaces and facilities is evaluated in points 3.1 and 3.2.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Warehousing and storage conditions for foodstuffs.
  • Stock rotation of foodstuffs,
  • Separation of materials, articles and products other than foodstuffs from foodstuffs
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

  • Foods and raw materials are stored in facilities reserved for them under suitable conditions in compliance with legislation.
  • The warehousing and storage of articles and products other than foodstuffs does no result in impaired food safety with respect to foodstuffs.
  • Products are in order in storage and stock rotation is effective, i.e., older products are taken from storage before newer products.
  • Outdated materials or products are removed from storage.
  • Condensation water is not produced onto raw materials and finished foodstuffs.
  • Packaging materials are stored under cover.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are some minor shortcomings in stock rotation which do not impair or jeopardise food safety, but leave room for improvement.
  • There are some minor shortcomings as concerns order in storage which do not impair or jeopardise food safety, but leave room for improvement.
  • There are outdated materials in storage.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • Foodstuffs are stored and warehoused in facilities and under conditions that impair food safety; for example, there is a lot of ice in the freezer stores and doors cannot be closed.
  • There are outdated foodstuffs in storage.
  • Materials, articles or products that can impair food safety are stored in storage facilities.
  • Dirty storage pallets are used in storage facilities.
  • Foodstuffs that should be packaged are stored unpackaged.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • Foodstuffs are stored and warehoused in facilities and under conditions that jeopardise food safety.
  • There are outdated foodstuffs in storage, e.g. foodstuffs not fit for use as food.
  • The warehousing and storage of products other than foodstuffs jeopardises food safety, e.g. TSE risk material and detergents.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 on hygiene rules for food of animal origin
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 2:

  • Guide no. 2136/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10284
  • List of legislation has been updated.

5.7 Hygiene in Handling and Storage of By-products

Guide/version: 2137/04.02.00.01/2021/5, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all approved establishments.
  • The production of by-products as part of normal production processes at the establishment is included within the scope of the approval of the establishment as referred to in the Food Act, and within the scope of food control. Other by-product operations are covered by legislation and control pertaining to the by-product or feed sector.
  • This Guideline is applied to the collection, handling, classification, sorting, storage, and identification of animal by-products at food establishments.
  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate hygiene in the handling and storage of by-products in as far that it may cause a risk to food safety. This means that the separation of different categories of by-products from each other or the storage of by-products outside food production facilities are not evaluated, for example.
  • Operations carried out at the establishment that are included within the scope of the by-product legislation and control, such as the separation of different categories of by-products from each other, as well as operations carried out in the by-product department are as a whole evaluated in point 5.8. The results of the evaluations based on Guideline 5.8 are not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the inspection report.
  • Handling of TSE risk material is evaluated in point 8.1.
  • Dispatching of by-products, commercial documents, and transport conditions and temperatures are evaluated in point 15.5.

Matters to be controlled:

  • The collection, handling, classification, sorting, storage, warehousing, and identification of animal by-products in food production facilities.
  • The separation of by-products from foodstuffs and the prevention of cross-contamination of foodstuffs.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Operations comply with requirements as regards the matters that are controlled. For example:

  • The establishment has a hygienic system in place for removal of by-products. By-products not fit for use as food are removed as quickly as possible, particularly from food production facilities where unpackaged foodstuffs are handled.
  • By-products are identifiable (marked at the establishment in an identifiable manner) and kept separate from foodstuffs during collection and storage.
  • Containers and utensils intended for the collection, handling, and storage of by-products are not used for the collection, handling, and storage of foodstuffs.
  • The handling and storage of animal by-products is in food businesses carried out under conditions that prevent cross-contamination, and if appropriate, in a dedicated part of the establishment.
  • Facilities intended for storage of by-products are adequate, hygienic, and adequately separated from the storage of foodstuffs.
  • Own-check activities are adequate and suitable.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

For example:

  • There are occasionally some minor shortcomings in the identification of storage containers; however, there is no risk of confusion with foodstuffs at any stage.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the records of corrective actions, but corrective actions have been appropriate and adequate.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

For example:

  • By-product containers are damaged or they leak, or they are over-filled or not kept adequately clean, resulting in impaired hygiene and food safety at the establishment.
  • Identification of by-products is deficient or missing from some containers in a manner that results in impaired food safety.
  • Cross-contamination is not prevented in an adequate manner, and the handling and storage of by-products impairs food safety.
  • Corrective actions have not been recorded although it becomes known that deviations have occurred, or corrective actions taken because of deviations have been inappropriate or inadequate.
  • Category 3 by-product containers are used for the storage of foodstuffs, or vice versa, and food safety is impaired.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

For example:

  • Containers and utensils intended for the collection, handling, and storage of category 1 or 2 by-products are used for the collection, handling, and storage of foodstuffs, or vice versa, and food safety is impaired.
  • Cross-contamination is not prevented, and the handling and storage of by-products jeopardises food safety; for example, category 1 or 2 by-products and unpackaged foodstuffs are stored in the same premises.
  • Corrective actions have not been recorded even when records are required, or corrective actions have not been taken, or they have been inadequate, and food safety is jeopardised.
  • The operator has failed to fulfil the orders issued with the grade to be corrected.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 2017/625 on official controls
  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on food law
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, Annex II
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin, Annex III, Section I, Chapter IV, and Section II, Chapter IV
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021, Section 6
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food control 315/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021, Section 36 and 38
  • Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 on by-products, Articles 4, 7-10, 21, 25-26 and 29
  • Finnish Food Authority's Guide “Handling and control of by-products at food establishments”.


Updates in version 5:

  • Guideline no. 2137/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10285
  • List of legislation has been updated.

5.8 Production and Traceability of By-products

Guide/version: 2138/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

This evaluation is not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the inspection report.

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline is applied to all approved food establishments.
  • The production of by-products as part of normal production processes at the establishment is included within the scope of the approval of the establishment as referred to in the Food Act, and within the scope of food control. Other by-product operations are covered by legislation and control pertaining to the by-product and/or feed sector.
  • This Guideline is applied to the collection, handling, classification, sorting, storage, identification, and transport of animal by-products to the extent that operations are covered by legislation pertaining to by-product and/or feed sector and the operations do not cause a risk to food safety.
  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate the separation of different by-product categories from each other, and the operations carried out in the by-product department or in establishments of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products that are operated in conjunction with the food establishment. In addition, operations related to transports and covered by legislation pertaining to by-product and/or feed sector are evaluated. The results of these evaluations are not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the inspection report.
  • An establishment that handles or delivers for feed use by-products produced in their own food production shall be registered as a feed business operator. If the establishment receives by-products from other food establishments for delivery as raw material for feed for fur animals, the establishment shall be registered as a collection centre. If the establishment manufactures pet food in primary packaging, the approval of a pet food establishment is required.
  • An establishment that dispatches by-products is always responsible for delivering by-products for transport to an appropriately registered or approved carrier. The dispatching establishment is also responsible for the dispatch of by-products to a permitted destination, even if transport is outsourced. Also the drafting of a commercial document and making sure it includes all information required by the legislation, is the responsibility of the sender.
  • Regardless of whether the establishment arranges the transport of by-products itself or outsources transport, the dispatching establishment shall always have records of the dispatched by-products.
  • Where the by-product operations of the establishment can cause a risk to food safety at the establishment, the operations are evaluated in point 5.7 "Hygiene in Handling and Storage of By-products".
  • Where the by-product operations of the establishment can cause a risk to food safety during transport, the operations are evaluated in point 15.5 "Dispatch of By-products, Commercial Documents and Transport Conditions".

Matters to be controlled:

  • Separation of different categories of by-products at all stages of operation.
  • Collection, handling, classification, sorting, storage, warehousing and identification of animal by-products in the by-product department.
  • The usability as feed of by-products delivered for feed use, and verification of this.
  • Identification markings of by-product categories in transport.
  • Commercial documents in transport of by-products (transport documents), including the traceability of by-products.
  • Monitoring of dispatched quantities of by-products.
  • By-products are dispatched to a destination where they are permitted to be dispatched according to legislation.
  • If the handling of by-products has been outsourced, by-products are delivered to an appropriately registered or approved carrier for transport.

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Operations comply with requirements as regards the matters that are controlled. For example:

  • By-products of different categories are separated from each other during collection and storage. If different by-product categories are combined, the whole batch is handled as the lower category by-product.
  • Dispatched by-products (packaging, container or vehicle) are provided with identification marking as specified in the Regulation on by-products (by-product category and marking text) and there is no risk of confusion between categories.
  • Dispatched by-products are accompanied by a commercial document filled out in compliance with the requirements laid down in the Regulation on by-products to verify traceability and identifiability.
  • The establishment maintains records of dispatches and quantities of different categories of by-products and stores the associated commercial documents and health certificates for at least two years.
  • By-products are only dispatched from the establishment to a destination permitted by legislation, such as an operator registered or approved pursuant to the Regulation on by-products (for example to a processing plant or a fur animal feed manufacturer).
  • The establishment is registered as a feed business operator, if it delivers by-products for feed use. The operation is covered by the own-check system.
  • Any establishments of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products that are operated in conjunction with the food establishment are approved/ registered and included in Finnish Food Authority's lists of by-product establishments. An own-check system is in place for them.
  • If by-products to be used as feed are not delivered immediately after collection, they are chilled / frozen / acidified without undue delay. The microbiological quality and usability as feed of by-products to be delivered for feed use are monitored.
  • The labelling of acidified feed intended for fur animals and finished pet food (not raw material for feed) complies with requirements.
  • The carrier who transports by-products is an appropriately registered or approved operator.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are minor issues with operations.

For example:

  • The sorting of by-products and the mixing of different categories of by-products is in practice carried out appropriately and the identification markings are correct, but the operator does not have defined the categories of the mixed ingredients based on the risk category referred to in the Regulation of by-products.
  • There are occasionally some minor shortcomings or inaccuracies in identification markings or commercial documents. However, by-products are traceable and identifiable, and there is no risk of confusion between different categories of by-products.
  • By-products are delivered for feed use accompanied by appropriate documents and in a manner that ensures their usability as feed is not reduced, but feeds are not covered by the own-check plan.
  • There are some minor shortcomings in the own-check system of an establishment of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products which is operated in conjunction with the food establishment, or the own-check system is not up-to-date in all respects.
  • The labelling of acidified feed for fur animals and finished pet food does not comply with requirements in all respects.
  • The operator does not have in place a system for verifying that by-products delivered for feed use are usable as feed.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are clear issues with operations.

For example:

  • There are shortcomings of such a nature in commercial documents and identification markings that by-products are not completely traceable and there is a possibility of risk of confusion between different categories of by-products.
  • No records are kept of dispatched quantities of by-products.
  • The establishment is not registered as a feed business operator, although it delivers by-products for feed use.
  • There are clear shortcomings in the own-check system of an establishment of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products which is operated in conjunction with the food establishment.
  • There are clear shortcomings in the microbiological quality of by-products delivered for feed use.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are severe issues with operations, or the operator has failed to rectify the issues within the set period of time.

For example:

  • The operator has failed to fulfil the orders issued with the grade to be corrected.
  • The commercial documents or transport containers/packages do not present any of the information referred to in the Regulation on by-products, and by-products are not traceable because of this.
  • The destination of dispatched by-products is not allowed in the Regulation on by-products.
  • The carrier who transports by-products is not an appropriately registered or approved operator.
  • An establishment of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products is operated in conjunction with the food establishment, such as a collection centre or an establishment manufacturing pet food, but it has not been registered / approved as specified in the Regulation on by-products.
  • An establishment of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products does not have an own-check system in place.
  • No labelling is provided on acidified feed for fur animals / finished pet food.
  • Spoiled by-products or by-products that based on their category are not usable as feed are delivered for feed use.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 on by-products, Articles 4, 7-10, 21-23
  • Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 implementing the Regulation on by-products; Article 17, Annex VIII
  • Animal By-Product Act 517/2015
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 783/2015, Section 5, Annex 3
  • Finnish Feed Act 86/2008, Sections 6-7, 15, 18-19, 21
  • Finnish Food Authority's Guide “Handling and control of by-products at food establishments”
  • Finnish Food Authority's Guide ”Sivutuotteiden toimittaminen rehukäyttöön liha-alan laitoksista” (in Finnish).


Updates in version 3:

  • The establishments of the type referred to in the Regulation on by-products that are operated in conjunction with the food establishment and the responsible quarter in drafting of the commercial document has been specified in To be taken into consideration.
  • Finnish Food Authority's Guide ”Sivutuotteiden toimittaminen rehukäyttöön liha-alan laitoksista” (in Finnish) has been added.
  • Guideline no. 2138/04.02.00.01/2021 replaces guideline no. 10321.