04 Actions and training of personnel

All Oiva evaluation guidelines for registered food premises.

4.1 Hygiene of Work Practices Used by Personnel

Guide/version: 2224/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

Matters to be controlled:

  • The hygiene of the actions of the personnel.
  • Prevention of microbiological cross-contamination in foodstuffs which are marketed or served for consumption as such and are not subjected to further processing in a way that would eliminate the risk caused by cross-contamination (e.g. handling of unwashed root vegetables and uncooked fishery and meat products).
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

The personnel acts in a hygienic way in the food premises.

Operations are organised in the food premises in a way that eliminates the possibility of cross-contamination in the handling of foodstuffs.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

The personnel acts in a hygienic way in the food premises.

Operations are organised in the food premises in a way that eliminates the possibility of cross-contamination in the handling of foodstuffs.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

There are shortcomings in the hygiene of the work practices of the personnel which impair food safety.

Operations are organised in the food premises in such a way that there is a risk of cross-contamination in the handling of foodstuffs.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The lack of hygiene in the actions of the personnel jeopardises food safety.

The risk of cross-contamination in the handling of foodstuffs has not been taken into account in the operations of the food premises.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, 178/2002/EC
  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC, Articles 3 and 4, Annex II, Chapter IX
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 3:

  • Guideline number 2224/04.02.00.01/2021/3 replaces Guideline number 10217/2.
  • Storage of the employees' own food: has been deleted.
  • Smoking of employees in the indoor areas of the food premises: has been deleted.
  • Finnish Food Act: number has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318: has been added.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, Section 17: has been deleted.
  • Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises 16025: has been deleted.

4.2 Hand Hygiene

Guide/version: 2225/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

Matters to be controlled:

  • Hand washing.
  • Hygiene use of protective gloves.
  • Operability and equipment of hand washing points.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

The employees observe hand washing procedures.

Any protective gloves used in the food premises are used in a hygienic way.

Hand washing points work and feature appropriate equipment.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

The employees observe hand washing procedures.

Any protective gloves used in the food premises are used in a hygienic way.

Hand washing points work and there are some minor shortcomings as concerns their equipment.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

The employees do not observe adequate hand hygiene.

If protective gloves are used in the food premises, they are not used in a hygienic way.

There are shortcomings in the operability or equipment of the hand washing points that impair food safety.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The negligence of the employees with respect to hand hygiene jeopardises food safety.

Hand washing points are not operable or there are shortcomings in their equipment which jeopardise food safety.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC, Article 4, Annex II, Chapters I and VIII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021.


Updates in version 3:

  • Guideline number 2225/04.02.00.01/2021/3 replaces Guideline number 10218/2.
  • Matters to be controlled: hygiene use of protective gloves has been updated.
  • Finnish Food Act: has been updated.
  • Matters to be controlled: the use of protective gloves has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, Section 17: has been deleted.
  • Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises 16025: has been deleted.

4.3 Work clothes

Guide/version: 2226/04.02.00.01/2021/4, valid from 1.7.2021

  • Hygienic protection of hands is addressed in point 4.2 Hand Hygiene
  • Under updated legislation, the operator is responsible for preparing site-specific instructions for prohibiting or protecting different piercings, jewellery and similar worn by employees who handle foodstuffs or visit areas where foodstuffs are handled.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Work clothes and protective clothing if necessary.
  • Cleanliness of work and protective clothing.
  • Protecting dermatitis, skin injuries and similar of persons who handle unpackaged foodstuffs.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Suitable work clothes, and protective clothing if necessary, are worn by employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled.

The work and/or protective clothing of employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled are clean.

Employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs do not have dermatitis, skin injuries or similar, or if they do, they cover them appropriately with protective clothing.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

There are some minor shortcomings as concerns the wearing of work and/or protective clothing by employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled.

There are minor shortcomings in the cleanliness of the work and/or protective clothing of employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled.

Employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs do not have dermatitis, skin injuries or similar, or if they do, they cover them appropriately with protective clothing.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled do not wear work and/or protective clothing suitable for the work, and this impairs food safety.

There are obvious shortcomings in the cleanliness of the work and/or protective clothing of employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled, and this impairs food safety.

Employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs have dermatitis, skin injuries or similar and they do not cover them appropriately with protective clothing.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The failure to wear work and/or protective clothing by employees working in areas where foods are handled jeopardises food safety.

There are serious issues in the cleanliness of the work and/or protective clothing of employees who work in areas where foodstuffs are handled, and these issues jeopardise food safety.

For example, employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs have visible cuts or skin injuries. Food safety is jeopardised.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs 852/2004/EY; Annex II, Chapter VIII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021.


Updates in version 4:

  • Guideline number 2226/04.02.00.01/2021/4 replaces Guideline number 10219/3.
  • To be noticed: has been updated.
  • To be checked: the rules on wearing work clothes and protective clothing have been updated.
  • Finnish Food Act: number has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, Section 17: has been deleted.
  • Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises 16025: has been deleted.

4.4 Monitoring of Employees' Health Status

Guide/version: 2126/04.02.00.01/2021/6, valid from 1.7.2021

This evaluation is not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the control report.

NOTE! Monitoring of employees’ health status is carried out by the Health and Welfare Institutes (THL) guideline for the prevention of salmonella infections https://thl.fi/fi/web/infektiotaudit/taudit-ja-mikrobit/bakteeritaudit/salmonella/toimenpideohje-salmonellatartuntojen-ehkaisemiseksi.

To be taken into consideration:

  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate how the operator establishes that the employees are fit to work in the food sector.

Matters to be controlled:

  • The health status of employees who handle foodstuffs.
  • Health status checks of employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

A health status check has been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

A health status check has been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease do not handle foodstuffs in the food premises.

Health status checks have not been carried out on employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating and/or there are some shortcomings in the performance of the checks.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

Employees known or suspected to be carriers of a foodborne disease handle foodstuffs in the food premises, which jeopardises food safety.

A health status check has not been carried out on all the employees who handle unpackaged foodstuffs to be served without heating.

The shortcomings related to the health status checks of the employees do not cause a direct risk to food safety. For this reason, the grade “Poor” is only given in case the grade “To be corrected” has been given repeatedly and the shortcomings have not been rectified within the set period of time.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapter VIII
  • Finnish Communicable Diseases Act 1227/2016; Section 56
  • Finnish Communicable Diseases Decree 146/2017
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • The Health and Welfare Institutes (THL) guideline for the prevention of salmonella infections.


Updates in version 6:

  • Guideline number 2126/04.02.00.01/2021/6 replaces Guideline number 10220/5.
  • Guideline has been changed to a common guideline for Registered food premises and Approved Food Establishments.
  • Records requirement related to the employees' health status checks: has been deleted.
  • Finnish Food Act: number has been updated.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, Section 17: has been deleted.
  • Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises 16025: has been deleted.
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene at establishments 795/2014, Section 4: has been deleted.

4.5 Instruction, Guidance and Training of Personnel

Guide/version: 2127/04.02.00.01/2021/3, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This point is evaluated at all establishments.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Instruction provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.
  • Person responsible for own-check activities and training of the responsible person.
  • Direction and training of employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.
  • Guidance and training provided to the personnel after any fundamental changes implemented in operations.
  • The adequacy of the instruction provided to the personnel, particularly as concerns personnel with high turnover as well as high-risk activities.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Instruction has been provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has been appointed and provided with adequate training in their duties.

Employees who handle foods have been provided with direction and training in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The food business operator shall ensure that persons follow the instructions given.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

There are some minor shortcomings in providing instruction to the personnel in own-check according to their duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has been appointed but has not been provided with adequate training in their duties.

There are some minor shortcomings in the direction and training of employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

There are minor deficiencies in the food business operator's supervision of compliance with the instructions given.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Instruction has not been adequately provided to the personnel in own-check in the manner required for their work duties.

A person responsible for own-check activities has not been appointed.

Direction and training have been provided to employees who handle foods only a little in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The operator does not control that the employees comply with the instructions provided.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The employees carry out duties of such a nature that wrong work practices jeopardise food safety.

A person responsible for own-check activities has not been appointed.

Direction and training have not been provided to employees who handle foods in matters related to food hygiene in the manner required for their work duties.

The operator does not control that the employees comply with the instructions provided.

The employees carry out duties of such a nature that wrong work practices jeopardise food safety.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapters VIII and XII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene 318/2021.


Updates in version 3:

  • Guideline number 2127/04.02.00.01/2021/3 en replaces Guideline number 10278/2.
  • Guideline has been changed to a common guideline for Registered food premises and Approved Food Establishments
  • To be taken into consideration has been added
  • The control of Instruction, Guidance and Training of Personnel has been clarified
  • List of legislation has been updated.

4.6 Verification of Hygiene Proficiency

Guide/version: 2128/04.02.00.01/2021/6, valid from 1.7.2021

Matters to be controlled:

  • The Hygiene Passports of personnel handling unpackaged perishable foodstuffs.
  • Own-check activities records related to the Hygiene Passports.
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan is controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

It has been verified in the food establishment or food premises that every employee who handles unpackaged perishable foodstuffs has the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

The recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel required by the Food Act is in order.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

It has been verified in the food establishment or food premises that every employee who handles unpackaged perishable foodstuffs has the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

There are some minor shortcomings in the recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel required by the Food Act.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

It has not been verified in the food establishment or food premises that employees who handle unpackaged perishable foodstuffs have the Hygiene Passport according to Finnish Food Authority's model.

There is no recordkeeping of the hygiene proficiency of the personnel as required by the Food Act.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

The shortcomings related to the Hygiene Passports do not immediately endanger food safety. For this reason, the grade “Poor” is only given in case the grade “To be corrected” has been given repeatedly and the shortcomings have not been rectified within the set period of time.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC; Annex II, Chapter XII
  • Finnish Food Act 297/3032, Section 19
  • Evira's Guide for risk-based control of food establishments and food premises 16044.


Updates in version 6:

  • Guideline number 2128/04.02.00.01/2021/6 replaces Guideline number 10222/5.
  • Finnish Food Act: number and section number has been changed.