05 Hygiene of food production or handling

All Oiva evaluation guidelines for registered food premises.

5.1 Risk Control in Food Preparing

Guide/version: 2229/04.02.00.01/2021/7, valid from 1.7.2021

This evaluation is not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the control report.

To be taken into consideration:

  • The operator shall verify that the foodstuffs are safe and suitable for food and that the hygiene requirements laid down in food legislation are complied within operations. The operator shall identify the risks related to their operation and manage the risks using suitable risk management methods.
  • The evaluation referred to in this Guideline is to be carried out where a risk factor related to the manufacture or some other form of handling of food is managed during production using a suitable method described in the own-check.
  • Such methods refer to, for example:
    • reduction or elimination of a microbial risk by means of an adequate heating process in connection with manufacture, such as the cooking of poultry products for eating, pasteurisation, etc.
    • elimination of the risk caused by toxins, such as adequate and appropriate processing of false morels through repeated boiling and rinsing in connection with manufacture
    • elimination of the risk caused by parasites, such as freezing of raw materials or the finished food product for an adequately long period of time
    • or any other method selected by the operator based on the risks related to their operation and described in the own-check.
    • Controlling the risk of EHEC food poisoning in the preparation or serving of medium-cooked (semi-cooked) minced meat burgers by a method chosen by the operator. This issue will be evaluated according to Annex 1.
  • The purpose of this point is to evaluate hygiene in thawing, chilling, quick-freezing, freezing and ice production, as well as the production and storage of ice meant for food production or human consumption.
  • Hygiene in thawing refers to e.g. the hygiene of the water used or produced in the thawing process and hygienic draining of water produced in thawing.
  • Food can be cooled in different ways: with air, for example in a cooling cabinet, with water, for example in a water bath, or with ice, for example in an ice bath. Hygiene of air cooling means, for example, the control of condensation water in cooling cabinets. Water cooling hygiene refers to, for example, the hygiene of water cooling systems and cooling water used for cooling. Ice means the hygiene of ice used for cooling.
  • Hygiene in quick-freezing and freezing is evaluated both as concerns foodstuffs quickfrozen/frozen for own production and foodstuffs intended for marketing as quick-frozen/frozen products.
  • The food control authority evaluates the validity and adequacy of the risk management methods related to the operator's production processes together with evaluating the adequacy of the own-check according to Guideline 1.2.
  • The following are to be evaluated according to this Guideline:
    • have the risk management methods described in the own-check plan for the verification of the conformance of the food product been complied with in the manufacturing process, and
    • has the regular verification of the effectiveness of the risk management method, including records, been implemented adequately, and
    • is adequate documentation available related to these
  • Matters related to general food production and handling hygiene, such as cleaning, work hygiene, hand hygiene, storage temperatures, chilling etc for which there are specific Guidelines, are not to be inspected according to this Guideline.
  • Temperature management during food production can be assessed by means of these guidelines in accordance with the risk management principles concerned, even if the storage temperatures are not applicable herein.

Matters to be controlled:

  • Consistency of the food manufacturing processes with the registered information on operation
  • Consistency of the risk management methods with the methods described in the own-check
  • Proper use of risk management methods
  • Hygiene in the thawing, chilling, quick-freezing and freezing of foodstuffs
  • Hygiene in the production and storage of ice meant for food production or human consumption
  • Thawing of frozen or quick-frozen food
  • Regular verification of the effectiveness of risk management methods in accordance with the own-check
  • Records according to own-check activities, deviations, and evaluation of corrective actions
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

The food manufacturing processes are consistent with registered information and suitable for the purpose. The risk management methods used in the manufacturing processes are suitable and adequate, consistent with the methods described in own-check activities and appropriately applied.

No condensation water is produced in air chilling, or the production and draining of a small volume of condensation water is under control so that condensation water cannot run onto products or along floors, and the contamination of foodstuffs is prevented.

Water cooling or ice cooling is carried out in a hygienic manner.

Thawing based on the use of water is implemented in a hygienic manner and the water produced in thawing is drained in a hygienic manner.

The production and storage of ice meant for production of foodstuffs or for human consumption is organised in a hygienic and appropriate manner.

Regular monitoring according to own-check activities is carried out to verify that the risk management methods function consistently as they should. Records are available of regular monitoring in accordance with own-check activities.

If any deviations have occurred, they have been recorded as well as the corrective actions. Corrective actions have been adequate and appropriate.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

The food manufacturing processes are consistent with registered information and suitable for the purpose. The risk management methods used in the manufacturing processes are suitable and adequate, consistent with the methods described in own-check activities and appropriately applied.

Some condensation water is produced in air chilling, but the production and draining of condensation water is under control so that condensation water cannot run onto products, and the contamination of foodstuffs is prevented.

Water chilling or ice chilling is mostly implemented in a hygienic manner and food safety is not impaired.

There are some minor shortcomings in thawing hygiene based on the use of water, and food safety is not impaired. The draining of water produced in thawing is implemented in a manner that ensures food safety is not impaired.

The production and storage of ice meant for use in the production of foodstuffs or for human consumption is as a rule organised in a hygienic and appropriate manner and food safety is not impaired.

Risks are managed using methods referred to in own-check activities, but there are some minor shortcomings related to the regular verification of the effectiveness of these methods according to own-check activities, and/or associated records.

There are some minor shortcomings in the records of deviations and corrective actions. Corrective actions have been adequate and appropriate.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Methods that are not suitable for the purpose and/or methods that are not described in own-check activities and evaluated to be suitable are used in the manufacturing processes.

Condensation water is produced in air chilling and the production and draining of the condensation water are not adequately under control. There is a possibility of condensation water running onto unpackaged foodstuffs causing a contamination risk to the foodstuffs and impairing food safety.

There are shortcomings in water chilling or ice chilling which result in impaired food safety.

There are shortcomings in thawing based on the use of water which result in impaired food safety. There are shortcomings in the draining of water produced in thawing and food safety is impaired.

There are shortcomings in the production and/or storage of ice used for food production or for human consumption, and food safety is impaired.

Adequate or suitable risk management methods are not used, or the risk management methods described in the own-check activities and evaluated to be adequate and suitable are not used, or there are such shortcomings in their use that impair food safety.

The effectiveness of risk management methods is not verified through regular monitoring.

There is no information available on deviations and their possible corrective actions.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

Methods that are not suitable are used in the manufacture.

Condensation water is produced in air chilling and the production and draining of the condensation water are not adequately under control, or condensation water is drained in a manner that does not prevent the contamination of foodstuffs. Condensation water runs onto unpackaged foodstuffs, which jeopardises food safety. For example: condensation water accumulates onto the dirty surface structure and from there runs onto unpackaged foodstuffs, and contaminates them.

There are shortcomings in water chilling or ice chilling which result in food safety being jeopardised.

There are shortcomings in thawing based on the use of water which result in food safety being jeopardised. There are shortcomings in the draining of water produced in thawing which result in food safety being jeopardised.

There are shortcomings in the production and/or storage of ice used for food production or for human consumption, and food safety is jeopardised.

In the food manufacturing processes there are not the adequate methods for the elimination of known risk factors, which is why food safety is jeopardised.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • General Food Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, Art. 14
  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, Art. 4 and 5
  • Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin, Annex III, Section VIII, Chapter III, Part D
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021
  • Evira's decision 1773/0959/2012 on the exemption of farmed fish from the freezing requirement pertaining to certain fishery products
  • Evira's Guide on quick-freezing and freezing of foodstuffs in food establishments, 16049
  • Preparing and serving medium-cooked minced meat burgers - Recommendations for food business operators.


Updates in version 7:

  • Number of the Finnish Food Act updated
  • Reference to Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on food hygiene in registered food premises, 1367/2011, has been deleted
  • Reference to Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises has been deleted
  • This evaluation is not presented in the Oiva report, but only in the control report
  • Hygiene of thawing, chilling, quick-freezing, freezing added to the matters to be controlled
  • Manufacture and storage of ice for food production or human consumption added to the matters to be controlled
  • Initiating the freezing of foodstuffs without undue delay after the preceding processing stages, if the frozen food is to be marketed directly to the consumer transferred to guideline 6.6.
  • Guideline No 2229/04.02.00.01/2021/7 replaces Guideline No 10211/4.

Annex 1, Oiva assessment guideline 5.1 Risk control in food preparing

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.The operation is in accordance with the requirements.

The operator uses a risk management method for the preparation or serving of medium-cooked minced meat burger.

The risk management method may be the method proposed by the operator and assessed as adequate by the supervisory authority or, for example, one or more of the following:

  • The operator asks the customer how well done the customer would like their minced meat burger.
  • The manufacturer of minced meat or minced meat burger guarantees that minced meat can be left medium.
  • The operator uses minced meat as a raw material for medium-cooked minced meat burger, which has been prepared in a restaurant or another food facility of whole meat as described in the Finnish Food Authority's recommendation.
  • The operator informs the customer in writing of the EHEC risk of the medium-cooked minced meat burger.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are minor shortcomings in the operator’s activities that do not affect food safety and will not mislead the consumer

There are minor shortcomings in the implementation of the risk management method chosen by the operator (see section excellent) or in the self-monitoring description, for example:

  • The operator has decided to ask the customers how well done they would like their minced meat burger, but this has not been described in self-monitoring.
  • The operator has decided to inform customers in writing of the EHEC risk of medium-cooked minced meat burger, but it is not clearly visible to all customers.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are shortcomings that undermine food safety or mislead the consumer. The shortcomings must be corrected within a specified time period.

The operator prepares or serves medium-cooked minced meat burgers and the operator does not have a risk management method in place for the medium-cooked minced meat.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are shortcomings in the operator’s activities that undermine food safety or seriously mislead the consumer or the operator has not complied with the given orders. The shortcomings must be corrected immediately.

The operator prepares or serves medium-cooked minced meat burgers in a manner that clearly undermines food safety. E.g. The “improvements required” assessment has been given repeatedly and the deficiencies have not been corrected within the given time period.

5.5 Packaging

Guide/version: 2230/04.02.00.01/2021/4, valid from 1.7.2021

To be taken into consideration:

  • This Guideline pertains to the cleanliness and/or intactness of all the materials in which foodstuffs are wrapped, packaged, stored or transported, as well as to the packaging of foodstuffs before delivery or transport to the customer.
  • Packaging material refers to any material in which foodstuffs are wrapped or packaged.
  • Wrapping/wrapper refers here to the material that comes into direct contact with food, such as a milk carton.
  • When one or several wrapped foodstuffs are placed in another container, it is referred to as a package.
  • A receptacle refers to the container in which unpackaged foodstuffs are placed for transport, such as a GN container.
  • Reusable transport packaging refers to returnable containers in which wrapped foodstuffs are carried from one food establishment to another and which are shared by several food establishments; containers for e.g. bread, milk cartons, meat.
  • The order and cleanliness of the storage facility for packaging materials is evaluated in Guideline 3.1.
  • The suitability of packaging material for food use is evaluated in Guideline 14.1 Packaging Materials and Other Food Contact Materials.
  • Labelling is evaluated in Guidelines 13. Food Information (13.1 – 13.4).

Matters to be controlled:

  • Cleanliness and intactness of wrapping, packages and receptacles
  • Cleanliness of reusable packaging used for storage and transport of own products, and cleaning method for reusable packaging
  • Handling and storage of packaging materials
  • Packaging
  • The adequacy and suitability of own-check activities and, where appropriate, the plan are controlled by applying the Annex to Guideline 1.6: "Adequacy and Suitability of Own-check Activities".

Excellent: Operations are in line with the requirements.Operations comply with requirements.

Food wrappers and receptacles are clean and intact and packages are clean and they are all stored in a way to protect them against contamination.

Where reusable packaging is used for the storage or transport of own products, the containers are clean and an adequate cleaning method is used to clean them.

The packaging of foodstuffs takes place in facilities suitable for packaging and the handling and storage of packaging materials as well as the packaging operation are implemented in a way that prevents the food from becoming contaminated when packaged.

Good: There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.There are small issues with the operations which do not impair food safety or mislead consumers.

Food wrappers are clean and intact.

There are some minor shortcomings in the cleanliness of packages and reusable packaging and/or in their storage and/or cleaning methods, which do not impair food safety, however, since only wrapped foodstuffs are stored in them.

There are some minor shortcomings in the packaging facilities of other than perishable foodstuffs, but food safety is not impaired.

The packaging of foodstuffs takes place in facilities suitable for packaging and the handling and storage of packaging materials as well as the packaging operation are implemented in a way that prevents the food from becoming contaminated when packaged.

To be corrected: There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.There are issues with the operations which impair food safety or mislead consumers. These issues must be rectified within a set period of time.

Food wrappers and receptacles are clean and intact, but there are shortcomings in the cleanliness of packages or reusable packaging which result in impaired food safety.

There are shortcomings in the handling or storage of packaging material or in the packaging operation which impair food safety.

Poor: There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.There are issues with the operations which jeopardise food safety or considerably mislead consumers, or the operator has failed to comply with orders that have been issued. These issues must be rectified with immediate effect.

Packaging materials are dirty or stored in a way that jeopardises food safety.

The packaging of foods takes place in a way that jeopardises food safety.

Legislation and guidelines (with any amendments) pertaining to the subject:

  • Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the hygiene of foodstuffs, 852/2004/EC, Article 4, Annex II, Chapter IV and Chapter X
  • Finnish Food Act 297/2021.


Updates in version 4

  • Number of the Finnish Food Act updated
  • Reference to Evira's Guide on food hygiene in registered food premises has been deleted
  • Guideline No 2230/04.02.00.01/2021/4 replaces Guideline No 10223/3.