Identification and typing

The Microbiology Unit of Finnish Food Authority identifies bacterial isolates and carries out typing of bacterial isolates sent by food laboratories.

Biochemical identification

  • Bacterial isolates sent by food laboratories and industry and suspected of being pathogenic


  • Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli (EHEC/VTEC/STEC) O157, O145, O111, O103, O26 and O104 as well as Yersinia enterocolitica

PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) typing

  • L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus and thermophilic Campylobacter species -  to determine the sources of foodborne outbreaks
  • L. monocytogenes - to determine process contaminations in food production lines

Other studies

  • EHEC/VTEC/STEC: PCR detection of virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA)Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseutotuberculosis: biotyping and PCR detection of virulence genes (ail, virF and inv)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus: PCR detection of virulence genes (tdh and trh)

Contact persons

Viral typology:

Other identifications and typologies:

Page last updated 11/10/2023